NIŠ (Lat. Naissus), town and important communications center in Serbia. Jews lived in Niš apparently from Roman times but there are no documents to confirm their presence before the 17th century. The disappearance of Jacob, a wool trader, was noted in 1651. Visits by shadarim (emissaries from Palestine) are on record for the second half of the 18th century.   The rabbis who served in Niš were Levi Jitzhak Yerushalmi, Jacob de Mayo, Rahamim Naftali Gedalya, Moshe Shaban, and Abraham Daniti. In 1900 the town's Jewish population numbered 800, their number gradually diminishing through emigration. A Zionist group called Zion joined the world movement in 1902. The Jews were engaged mainly in the textile trade and in moneychanging; some were artisans, while a few were manual laborers. A prayer house was built in 1695 and a synagogue in 1909. Local spiritual leaders consulted the rabbis of Belgrade on halakhic matters. The Jews of Niš participated in Serbia's wars and suffered casualties in them. In 1921 there were 547 Jews in the town. In the 1930s there was a good deal of communal activity, including a choir and Zionist youth groups like Ha-Shomer ha-Tza'ir and, later, also Betar. In 1939 Yugoslav Prime Minister Cvetkovic, a native of the town, offered to arrange exit visas to Turkey for the Jews of Niš, but the Jews chose to remain despite the danger signs. In 1940 they numbered 430, increasing to 970 in 1941 with the arrival of refugees from Germany, Austria, and Poland. The Germans arrived in April 1941. In October 1941 the Jewish men were imprisoned in the "Red Cross" camp at Bubanj. In February 1942 several inmates escaped from the camp after attacking the guards, and in retaliation several prisoners, most of them Jews, were shot. Two days later, more Jews were shot. In the spring of 1942 all women and children were arrested and after a few days in the "Red Cross" camp they were sent to the Sajmiste (Semlin Judenlager) death camp. In 1952 there were 25 Jews in the city. The community was not renewed. The synagogue was used as a concert hall. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bulletin de l'Alliance Israélite Universelle, 28 (1963), 147–8; Zločini fašističkih okupatora … u Jugoslaviji (1952), 38–40. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Z. Loker (ed.), Pinkas ha-KehillotYugoslavia (1988); Ž. Lebl, Do "konačnog rešenja"Jevreji u Srbiji, Belgrade, 2003, 65–119; Dva stoljeća židovske povijesti i kulture u Zagrebu i Hrvatskoj (1998), issued by Zagreb Jewish community. (Simon Marcus / Zvi Loker (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • NIS+ — NIS+  служба каталогов, разработанная корпорацией Sun Microsystems для замены Network Information Service (NIS). NIS+ не требует дублирования конфигурационных файлов, вместо этого используется центральный репозиторий на главном сервере, что… …   Википедия

  • NIS+ — is a directory service developed by Sun Microsystems to replace its older NIS (Network Information Service). It is designed to eliminate the need for duplication across many computers of configuration data such as user accounts, host names and… …   Wikipedia

  • Nis — ist ein: Vorname, hauptsächlich gebräuchlich an der deutschen Nordseegrenze. Bekannte Figuren der Literatur mit diesem Namen: Nis Randers und Nis Puk. Der im nördlichen Deutschland verbreitete Nachname Nissen bedeutet soviel wie Nis s Sohn. Nis… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • NIS — may refer to: Nickel sulfide NiS Nis or NIS may refer to: Niš, a city in south eastern Serbia. Ness, Western Isles (Scottish Gaelic: Nis), a village in the Outer Hebrides islands. In politics and government: New Israeli Shekel, the currency unit… …   Wikipedia

  • Niš —   [niːʃ], Nisch [nɪʃ, niːʃ], Stadt in Serbien, Jugoslawien, 207 m über dem Meeresspiegel, an der Nišava nahe der Mündung in die Südliche Morava, 175 400 Einwohner; Universität (gegründet 1965), Bibliothek, Museum. Niš ist der wirtschaftliche… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Nisəqələ —   Municipality   …   Wikipedia

  • NIS — steht für: einem Vornamen, Kurzform von Dionysios die serbische Stadt Niš eine Kurzform von Nikolaus (dies gilt nur für den serbischen Ableger des Namens, der norddeutsche stellt keinerlei Abkürzung dar) NIS ist die Abkürzung für: Naftna… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • NIS — NIS: Network Information Service  служба, разработанная Sun Microsystems. New Israeli Sheqel (рус. новый израильский шекель, ивр. שקל חדש‎‎, «шекель хадаш»)  код валюты Израиля. Norton Internet Security  пакет безопасности… …   Википедия

  • NIS — National Indicator Set (NIS) England, Wales A set of 198 National Indicators introduced following the Government s Comprehensive Spending Review in 2007. Since 1 April 2008 the NIS has been the only set of indicators by which local authorities… …   Law dictionary

  • Niš — Nis / Nisch (German), Nis / Nish (English, French), Ниш / Niš (Serbian), Ниш (Bulgarian), Niŝo (Esperanto), Nisz (Polish), Nix (Asturianu) …   Names of cities in different languages

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”